what is Transformer?


Transformer is a machine that can increase or decrease the voltage flowing in the line without reducing the frequency. Transformer always works on AC current only 


Transformer is being used everywhere in today's time. From the charger of our phones to the electricity coming into our homes. Transformers are used in 99% of electronic machines. 


as an example  
Our charger which is between 5 volt to 6 volt, first 220 volt AC current comes in the charger, which is converted to 5 or 6 volt with the help of transformer. Then that 6 volt current is converted into DC current by the rectifier. And further it works to charge our phone. Thus there are many electronics components in which transformers are used. 


How  types of transformer are there? 


There are two types of transformers
1) Step Down and 
2) Step Up Transformer. 

1) In the step down transformer, we supply further by reducing the voltage of the line which comes in the line. 


as an example  
Suppose 220 voltage is coming in our line. And we need 110 voltage ahead, so we can reduce that voltage with the help of step down transformer. and can get 110 volts 

2)The function of step up transformer is to increase the voltage. Suppose 110 voltage current is coming in our line. And we need 220 voltage current. So there we will use step up transformer. 


As an example

You will always see in the streets of your colony, that a transformer is used every one to 4 kilometers. That transformer is installed because after the power goes out in all the houses, the voltage in the line decreases somewhat. Due to which step up transformer is installed at every 1 to 3 kilometer to complete the voltage further. In many cases, a step-down transformer is also used to supply electricity to homes. 

Working of transformer?

Copper winding is mainly inside the transformer. Which is called primary coil and secondary coil. The winding of both these copper is above the core. It has one output and one input binding. These two windings are not related to each other. Both winding has two points each. Input point and output point, supply is given from input point and we get supply from output 



These two bindings do not have equal coils, in both the windings different amount of coils are wrapped over the core depending on whether the transformer is step down or step up. And it also depends on how much voltage has to be reduced or increased. 

When we supply electric AC current in the primary winding as input. Then an electromagnetic field is formed in the primary winding. And the second binding comes inside this electromagnetic field. Due to which electro magnetic field or electric current also comes in the second binding. And further he gives us the voltage according to the secondary winding. 


For example  
Suppose we want to get 220 V from 110 V. So in this case, let's say 110 turn copper coil is wrapped in the primary winding and 220 turn copper coil is wrapped in the secondary winding in the output, by which the incoming 110 volt current will convert into 220 volt by going to the secondary winding. Similarly Any transformer will work. 


what is core type and shell type Transformer?

Transformers are made in core form and cell form. The transformer in which the binding is done over the core is called a core type transformer. And the transformer in which the binding is done on the core is called shell type transformer. 




The core of the transformer is made of silicon sheets. And it reduces the iron and eddy loss in the transfer of silicon leaves. 

Transformer cooling system?

Due to the current passing through the primary banking and copper winding of the transformer, the transformer gets very hot. To reduce this, various types of cooling systems are used in transformers. As if Oil cooled transformer,  air cooled transformer and water cooled transformer





1) Oil cooled Transformer-   Thin hollow pipes are fitted outside the oil cooled transformer, in which oil is filled. Which works to keep the transformer cool. 

2) Water Cooled Transformer-   Thin hollow pipes are fitted outside the water cooled transformer, in which water is filled. Which works to keep the transformer cool. 

3) Air Cooled Transformer-  Air cooled transformers have such thin fins where air collides and cools the transformer. 

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